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Abstract Expressionism
by Gary Comenas

abstract expressionism

| 1800-1899 | 1900-1909 | 1910-1919 | 1920-1924 | 1925-1927 | 1928-1929 | 1930 | 1931 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | 1939 |
| 1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 | 1945 (a) | 1945 (b) | 1946 | 1947 | 1948 (a) | 1948 (b) | 1949 | 1950 | 1951 | 1952 | 1953 | 1954 | 1955 |
| 1956 | 1957 | 1958 | 1959 | 1960 | 1961 | 1962 | 1963 | 1964 | 1965 | 1966 | 1967 | 1968 | 1969 | 1970-1974 | 1975 - 1979 | 1980s+ |

Sources

In the citations in the Abstract Expressionism chronology there is a code in parentheses. The first two letters refer to the work below - the numbers after the digits are the page numbers. Clicking on an underlined title will bring up the Amazon page for the book with the ISBN number and publisher details in a separate browser window.

AA: Introduction by Matthew Baigell and Julia Williams, Artists Against War and Fascism: Papers of the First American Artists' Congress (New Jersey: New Brunswick Press, 1986)

AB: "The All American," Time magazine (March 15, 1954)

AC: "Interview with Jacob Kainen Conducted by Avis Berman At the artist's studio in Washington, DC August 10 and September 22, 1982," Smithsonian Archives of American Art http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/kainen82.htm

AD: Laura De Coppet and Alan Jones, The Art Dealers (rev. and expanded ed.) (NY: Cooper Square Press, 2002)

AE: Edward Alden Jewell, "Modernism's Pioneer; How '291' Precluded the Armory - Marin's Evolution - Polish and Other Shows," The New York Times, October 29, 1933 (Sunday), p. x5

AF: "The Art Students League," Traditional Fine Arts Organization (http://www.tfaoi.com/newsm1/n1m111.htm)

AG: Mary Davis MacNaughton, "Adolph Gottlieb: His Life and Art" in Lawrence Alloway and Mary Davis MacNaughton, Adolph Gottlieb: A Retrospective (NY: The Arts Publisher, Inc., 1981)

AH: Lawrence Alloway, "Adolph Gottlieb and Abstract Painting" in Alloway and MacNaughton, Adolph Gottlieb: A Retrospective (NY: The Arts Publisher, Inc., 1981)

AI: Arnauld Pierre, "The 'Confrontation of Modern Values': A Moral History of Dada in Paris," in Leah Dickerman with Matthew S. Witkovsky (eds.), The Dada Seminars (Washington: National Gallery of Art in assn. with Distributed Art Publishers, Inc, 2005)

AJ: "André Breton," http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/André_Breton

AK: Alan Riding, "Surrealism For Sale, Straight From The Source; André Breton's Collection Is Readied for Auction," The New York Times, December 17, 2002 http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE5D8173DF934A25751C1A9649C8B63

AL: Andrew Ladis, "George Biddle, Raphael Soyer, and the Genius with a Thousand Faces," Coming Home: American Paintings, 1930-1950, from the Schoen Collection exh. cat. (Georgia Museum of art, 2003)

AM: American Abstract Artists website ("History" section)
www.americanabstractartists.org/history.htm (August 2007)

AN: "Andre Breton's 42 rue Fontaine Art Collection goes to Auction," Afterimage,  March-April, 2003 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2479/is_5_30/ai_99309212

AO: "Andre Breton's collection on the block - Art World,"Art in America (February, 2003) http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_2_91/ai_97551501

AP: Henry Geldzahler, American Painting in the Twentieth Century (NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1965)

AQ: Nicole Geblesco, "Surrealism and Psychoanalysis," http://www.answers.com/topic/surrealism-and-psychoanalysis?cat=health

AR: Raymond J. Steiner, The Art Students League of New York: A History (NY: CSS Publications Inc., 1999)

AS: Dorothy Seckler, Interview with Adolph Gottlieb, New York, October 25, 1967, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

AT: Charles Harrison and Paul Wood (eds.), Art in Theory 1900-2000, An Anthology of Changing Ideas (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003)

AU: Catalogue 130-N: Modern Art: Rarities of the Avant-Garde, ars libri ltd., http://www.arslibri.com/cat130w30.htm

AV: "André Breton: L'écriture automatique: Surrealism, automatic writing and automatic drawing -> Angel Art!,"
http://www.angel-drawing.com/angel-art-breton.html

AW: Glenn Collins, "Art, Wealth and Fillial Duty Ensnarl Dispute Over de Kooning's Assets," New York Times, June 8, 1989

AX: "Artists Meet Architects - 1944-1955," http://www.pushpullbar.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2206

AY: Peter Busa (1914 - 1985), Julie Heller Gallery, http://www.juliehellergallery.com/Julie%20Heller%20Gallery/Artist%20Images/
Peter%20Busa/Julie%20Heller%20Gallery%20%20Peter%20Busa%20Bio.htm

AZ: Thomas B. Hess, Abstract Painting (NY: The Viking Press, Inc., 1951)

BA: Nouritza Matossian, Black Angel: A Life of Arshile Gorky (London: Chatto & Windus, 1998)

BAA: Quote comes from Matossian, p. 339 from a conversation between Léger and Gorky, translated by Gorky's wife Agnes.

BB: Interview with Bernard Braddon and Sidney Schectman Conducted by Avis Berman at New York, New York, October 9, 1981, Smithsonian Archives of American Art (http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/braddo81.htm)

BC: "Andre Breton, Father of Surrealism, Dies at 70," The New York Times (September 29, 1966)

BE: Avis Berman, "Willem de Kooning: 'I Am Only Halfway Through,'" Art News (February 1982), pp. 68 - 73

BJ: Letter from André Breton and his wife, Jacqueline (Lamba) Breton, dated September 8, 1940, written in Salon the day they left for Martigues. (http://www.geocities.com/surrealisme_in_nederland/manuscrits/bretonmanus.html)

BM: Barbara Haskell, Blam! The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism, and Performance 1958 - 1964 exh. cat. (NY: Whitney Museum in assn. with W.W. Norton & Company, 1984)

BP: Barbara Rose, "Jackson Pollock At Work: An interview with Lee Krasner," Partisan Review (47, No. 1, 1980, pp. 82-92) repr. in Pepe Karmel (ed.), Jackson Pollock: Interviews, Articles and Reviews (NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1999)

BR: Carol Vogel, "Big Risks at Fall Art Auctions," New York Times, November 1, 2006

BS: "Interview with Bernarda Bryson Shahn Conducted by Liza Kirwin In Roosevelt, New Jersey April 29, 1983, Smithsonian Archives of American Art, http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/tranSCRIPTs/shahn83.htm

BT: John I. H. Baur, Bradley Walker Tomlin (NY: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1957)

BU: Berton Roueché, "Unframed Space," The New Yorker, 26, No. 24 (August 5, 1950), 16 repr. in Pepe Karmel (ed.), Jackson Pollock: Interviews, Articles and Reviews (NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1999), 18-19

BW: "Bradley W. Tomlin, Abstract Painter; Syracuse-Born Artist, Whose Works Are Included in Many Noted Collections, Is Dead," The New York Times (May 13, 1953), p. 29

CA: "City Art Gallery Moving," The New York Times, May 19, 1937, p. 21

CG: John O'Brian, Clement Greenberg, The Collected Essays and Criticism, Volume 2, Arrogant Purpose (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1988)

CH: Charlotte Higgins, "Work of art that inspired a movement ... a urinal," The Guardian (December 2, 2004)

CJ: Carole Seymour-Jones, A Dangerous Liaison: Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre (London: Century, 2008)

CL: No author cited, "The Rescue of Marc Chagall," The David S. Wyman Instiute for Holocaust Studies
http://www.wymaninstitute.org/education/Rescue%20of%20Marc%20Chagall.pdf

CO: Barbara Rose, Claes Oldenburg (NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1970)

CR: Mark Rothko with an introduction by Christopher Rothko, The Artist's Reality: Philosophies of Art (New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 2004)

CS: Danny Postel, "Camus, Sartre, and Us: The Story of a Friendship and the Quarrel That Ended It: An Interview with Ron Aronson," Logos (Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter 2005)
http://www.logosjournal.com/issue_4.1/aronson_postel.htm

CV: "Wolfgang Paalen Abridged Biographical Chronology," Frey Norris Gallery, http://www.freynorris.com/docs/Wolfgang_Paalen_cv.htm

CW: Selden Rodman, Conversations with Artists (NY: Capricorn Books, 1961)

DA: Ashton, Dore. A Critical Study of Philip Guston (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990) http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft4x0nb2f0/

DB: David Bourdon, "Andre Masson at Zabriskie, " Art in America (April 1996)
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n4_v84/ai_18213411

DC: Matthew S. Witkovsky, "Chronology," in in Leah Dickerman, Dada: Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, New York, Paris exh. cat. (Washington: National Gallery of Art, 2005)

DD: Associated Press, "De Kooning's Daughter Seeks Control of His Assets," New York Times, May 23, 1989

DJ: David E. Brauer, Jim Edwards... (et al), Pop Art U.S./U.K. Connections, 1956 - 1966 (Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2001)

DK: Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan, de Kooning: An American Master (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006)

DL: Dulsie Lang as played by Holly De Jong in "Four and Twenty Blackbirds" (TV episode), Agatha Christie's Poirot (London: Picture Partnership Productions for Granada TV/ITV, 1989)

DR: Dr. Lori, "Teacher and painter John Sloan," http://www.drloriv.com/lectures/sloan.asp

DS: Deborah Solomon, Jackson Pollock, A Biography (NY: Simon and Schuster, 1987)

DT: Hansmaarten Tromp, "Willem de Kooning: 'Elke stijl is fraude," De Tijd, Oct. 21, 1977 cited in Stevens and Swan, p. 49, 43

DW: Thomas Girst, "Duchamp's Window Display for André Breton's Le Surréalisme et la Peinture (1945)," Tout-Fait online journal, Issue 4, 2002 http://toutfait.com/duchamp.jsp?postid=1249&keyword=#

EA: Edward Alden Jewell, "Whitney Exhibits Art of the Europeans," The New York Times (March 13, 1945)

EB: Interview with Ernest Briggs Conducted by Barbara Shikler At New York City, New York 1982 July 12, Smithsonian Archives of American Art
http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/briggs82.htm

EC: Edward Alden Jewell, "Contrasts in Art: The Academy Opens Its Annual Against a Background of 'Modern' Shows..." The New York Times (March 18, 1945, Arts and Leisure section, p. x8)

ED: Joseph Solman, "The Easel Division of the WPA Federal Art Project," in Francis V. O'Connor (ed.), The New Deal Art Projects, An Anthology of Memoirs (Washington, D.C., 1972), p. 122 cited in Breslin, Mark Rothko, A Biography, p. 106

EH: Eleanor Heartney, "Hilla Rebay: Visionary Baroness," Art in America, September 2003

EW: "Robert Motherwell Chronology" in Louise Lindner Eastman, An Exhibition of the Work of Robert Motherwell, January 10-28 1963, to Accompany the First Louise Lindner Eastman Memorial Lecture January 14, 1963 (MA: Smith College Museum of Art, 1963)

FD: Fielding Dawson, An Emotional Memoir of Franz Kline (NY: Pantheon Books, 1967)

FG: Malcolm Goldstein, Landscape with Figures (NY: Oxford University Press, 2000)

FI: John Fischer, "The Easy Chair: Mark Rothko, Portrait of the Artist as an Angry Man," Harper's magazine, July 1970, pp. 16-23 repr. in Miguel López-Remiro (ed.), Writings on Art: Mark Rothko (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), pp. 130-138)

FK: Harry F. Gaugh, Franz Kline (NY: Abbeville Press Publishing Group, Inc., 1985)

FR: Franklin Rosemont, "Introduction," André Breton and David Seaman (translator) with text and illustrations by André Masson, Martinique Snake Charmer (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exbremar.html#ex1

GA: Adolph Gottlieb Biographical Information, Mercury Galleries, http://www.mercurygallery.com/AdolphGottlieBio.html

GC: A Guide to Commercial Art Gallery Records in the Archives of American Art, http://www.aaa.si.edu/guides/pastguides/artgall/artgalvz.htm

GG: De Kooning, "Willem de Kooning: Geduldig genie," Volkskrant, Sept. 28, 1968 cited in Stevens and Swan, p. 55

GH: Geoffrey T. Hellman, "Comment.," The New Yorker, April 12, 1947, p. 23

GM: Gene Moore and Jay Hyams, My Time At Tiffany's (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1990)

HA: Michael Kirby, Happenings: An Illustrated Anthology (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1965)

HB: Henri Béhar, André Breton, Tate Museum, London http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ArtistWorks?cgroupid=999999961&artistid=807&tabview=bio

HC: Harry Cooper, "Jack Tworkov," Artforum International, Volume 38. Issue 8 (April 2000), p. 139

HD: Howard Devree, "Abstract Export; Controversial 'Vanguard' Work to Go to Paris," The New York Times ( Sunday, December 30, 1951) Arts & Leisure section, p. x9

HH: Hayden Herrera, Arshile Gorky: His Life and Work (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2003)

HM: Robert Motherwell chronology, Hackett Freedman Gallery, San Francisco
http://www.hackettfreedman.com/upload/Bios/RMotherwell_bio.pdf

HS: Harold Stevenson, California Landscape: Journal notes for making a painting (Mitchell Algus Gallery, Tuesday May 18, 1999)

IA: "Art Notes/Plans of the Society of Independent Artists - New Exhibitions," The New York Times (January 20, 1917)

IE: "International Exhibition," The New York Times (February 16, 1913), News and Notes section of "Art at Home and Abroad" in part 5 of the magazine, p. 55.

IJ: Adrian Dannatt, "Obituary: Janice Biala," The Independent newspaper (London, November 30, 2000)

IK: Curtis Bill Pepper, "The Indomitable de Kooning," The New York Times Magazine (Nov. 20, 1983), p. 86 cited in Stevens and Swan, p. 56

IN: "A Mile of Pictures," The New York Times (April 11, 1917)

IP: William Wright, Interview with Jackson Pollock (late 1950), WERI radio station (Westerly, Rhode Island, 1951); Transcript in Pepe Karmel (ed.), Jackson Pollock: Interviews, Articles and Reviews (NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1999, pp. 20-23)

IS: Irving Sandler, A Sweeper-Up After Artists (London: Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2004)

JA: "John Sloan, Artist Dead at Age of 80," The New York Times (September 9, 1951)

JAX: John D. Angeline, "Davis, Dreier, Lissitzky: New Thoughts on an Old Series," PART 2 journal (NY: Art History Program Graduate Center, City University of New York, date unknown) http://www.brickhaus.com/amoore/magazine/Davis.html (September 2007)

JB: John Bernard Myers, Tracking the Marvelous (NY: Random House, 1983)

JB: Jan Bart Klaster, "De Kooning gaat door ik schilder mijn binnenste," Het Parool, May 11, 1983 cited in Stevens and Swan, p. 39

JC: "Jackson Pollock," California Arts and Architecture (April 1944), p. 14

JE: Letter from Harold Rosenberg to B.H. Friedman dated June 22, 1970

JF: B.H. (Bernard Harper) Friedman, Jackson Pollock: Energy Made Visible (NY: Da Capo Press, 1995)

JG: John Gruen, The Party's Over Now: Reminiscences of the Fifties - New York's Artists, Writers, Musicians, and their Friends (NY: The Viking Press, 1972)

JH: John Held, Jr., Interview with Allan Kaprow broadcast on Dallas Cable Access TV, 1988
http://www.mailartist.com/johnheldjr/InterviewWithAlanKaprow.html

JJ: Kirk Varnedoe, Jasper Johns: A Retrospective (exh. cat.) (NY: The Museum of Modern Art, 1996)

JK: Interview with Jack Kufeld Conducted by Avis Berman, October 5, 1981, Smithsonian Archives of American Art, http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/Kufeld81.htm

JL: Joseph Liss, "Willem de Kooning Remembers Mark Rothko," Art News (January 1979), p. 41-4 quoted in Stevens and Swan, p. 147

JM: "Interview with Joseph Solman Conducted by Avis Berman at his studio at 156 Second Avenue in New York, NY, May 6 and 8, 1981," Smithsonian Archives of American Art, http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/solman81.htm

JN: Annie Cohen-Solal, Jean-Paul Sartre: A Life (NY: The New Press, 2005)

JO: Jonathan Jones, "Feeding Fury," Guardian newspaper, December 7, 2002
http://arts.guardian.co.uk/print/0,,4561386-110432,00.html

JP: Deborah Solomon, Jackson Pollock: A Biography (NY: Cooper Square Press, 2001)

JQ: Jackson Pollock Biography, Guggenheim Museum, http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_bio_129.html

JR: John Russell, Matisse: Father and Son (Harry N. Abrams, 1999)

JS: "Chronology of John Sloan," The John Sloan Manuscript Collection, (Wilmington: Delaware Art Museum, 2002)
http://www.delart.org/HFS_library/finding_aids/John%20Sloan%20Collection.htm

JT: Michael Brenson, "Jack Tworkov, Painter and Art Teacher, Dead," The New York Times (September 6, 1982), Section 1, p. 32

JZ: J. Z. Holden, "Lee Krasner: Recollections, Cultural Context and New Perspectives,"
http://www.hamptons.com/detail.ihtml?id=1527&apid=3290&sid=3&cid=12&arc=1, April 18, 2007

KD: "Interview with Samuel Kootz Conducted by Dorothy Seckler In New York April 13, 1964," Smithsonian Archives of American Art
http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/tranSCRIPTs/kootz64.htm

KK: Katharine Kuh, The Artist's Voice: Talks with Seventeen Artists (NY: Da Capo Press, 2000)

KV: Kirk Varnedoe, "Comet: Jackson Pollock's Life and Work" in Kirk Varnedoe with Pepe Karmel, Jackson Pollock (NY: The Museum of Modern Art, 1998)

LA: Letter from Mark Rothko to Barnett Newman (August 1946)

LB: Letter from Mark Rothko to Barnett Newman (June 17, 1946)

LD: Victor Bockris, The Life and Death of Andy Warhol (London: Fourth Estate Ltd., 1998)

LF: Malcolm Goldstein, Landscape with Figures, A History of Art Dealing in the United States (NY: Oxford University Press, 2000)

LH: Grace Glueck, "The Man the Art Wold Loves to Hate," New York Times magazine (June 15, 1975), p. 20.

LI: "Congress of American Artists, 1941 (Part 2)," http://www.gis.net/~scatt/heller/artists_congress02.html

LJ: Allan Kaprow, "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock," Art News (October 1958) repr. in Allan Kaprow (author) and Jeff Kelley (ed.), Essays on the Blurring of Art and Life (University of California Press, 2003)

LL: Lucy R. Lippard, Pop Art (London: Thams and Hudson Ltd., 2001)

LM: Lee Seldes, The Legacy of Mark Rothko (Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 1996)

LO: David Sylvester, "Content is a Glimpse," Location 1, Spring 1963, p. 45-53 cited in Stevens and Swan, p. 63

LP: Marco Livingstone, Pop Art: A Continuing History (London: Thames & Hudson, 2000)

LR: Nancy Princenthal, "Line readings: Arshile Gorky's drawings," Art in America (May 2004)

LS: "Louis Schanker 1903 - 1981, printmaker, painter, sculptor - 60 years of experimentation,"
http://www.louisschanker.info/ten.pdf

LZ: Leah Dickerman, "Zurich," in Dada: Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, New York, Paris exh. cat. (Washington: National Gallery of Art, 2005)

MA: Julien Levy, Memoir of an Art Gallery (Boston: MFA Publications, 2003)

MB: Alice Goldfarb Marquis, Marcel Duchamp: The Bachelor Stripped Bare (Boston: MFA Publications, 2002)

MC: "$73M US Rothko Work Smashes Records," CBC Arts (with files from the Associated Press), May 16, 2007
http://www.cbc.ca/arts/artdesign/story/2007/05/16/auction-rothko-postwar.html?ref=rss

MD: Mary Dearborn, Peggy Guggenheim, Mistress of Modernism (London: Virago Press, 2005)

MF: "Marvelous & Fantastic," Time magazine, December 14, 1936

MG: Joseph Solman biography, Mercury Gallery, Boston (www.mercurygallery.com/JoeSolmanBio.html)

MH: Melissa Ho, "Chronology of the Artists Life," Ann Temkin ed., Barnett Newman (Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2002), pp. 318-35 http://www.barnettnewman.org/chronology.php

MK: Mary Lynn Kotz, Rauschenberg: Art and Life (NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2004)

ML: Lindsey Gruson, "Art Dealer Convicted of Tampering in Rothko Suit," New York Times (December 5, 1982)

MM: Musa Mayer, Night Studio A Memoir of Philip Guston (London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1991)

MO: Edward Alden Jewell, "Municipal Group Opens Art Exhibit; Display Gives Retrospective of the Temporary Gallery's Activities Since Inception," The New York Times, January 13, 1937, p. 19.

MP: Philip Shenon, "Dealer in Rothko Case Must Donate $100,000, The New York Times (May 14, 1983)

MR: Court of Appeals of New York, Matter of Rothko (43 NY2d 305), Court decision argued October 4, 1977, decided November 22, 1977, http://www.courts.state.ny.us/reporter/archives/rothko.htm

MS: Matthew Spender, From A High Place, A Life of Arshile Gorky (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000)

MV: Carol Vogel, "A Pollock is Sold, Possibly for a Record Price," The New York Times (November 2, 2006)

MX: "Meyer Schapiro, Art HIstorian and Critic, Dies at 91," The New York Times (March 4, 1996), http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/schapiro-obit.html

NA: Roberta Smith, "Art Review | 'Société Anonyme' Lights From the Dawn of Modernism," The New York Times (October 24, 2006)

NE: Natalie Edgar (ed.), Club Without Walls: Selections from the Journals of Philip Pavia (NY: Midmarch Arts Press, 2007)

NF: "Franz Kline, 51, Painter, is Dead," The New York Times, May 15, 1962, p. 39

NG: "A Round of Galleries; Prints From Middle Ages to Present Day - Work by Many Artists Now on View," The New York Times, January 20, 1929 (Sunday), section: Arts & Leisure, p. x13

NK: Hilton Kramer, "Art: de Kooning of East Hampton," The New York Times, February 10, 1978, section: The Weekend, p. C19

NN: Howard Devree, "A Reviewer's Notebook; Briefs on a Score of Attractions in the Art Galleries as the Holidays Begin," The New York Times, December 22, 1935 (Sunday), p. x13

NO: Howard Taubman, "Orchestra Tours; Three American Ensembles Will Travel in Europe and Asia This Year," The New York Times, February 27, 1955, p. x9

NP: The New American Painting As Shown in Eight European Countries 1958 - 1959 (NY: The Museum of Modern Art, 1959)

NR: John Russell, "De Kooning: 'I See the Canvas and I Begin,'" The New York Times, February 5, 1978, section: Arts & Leisure, p. D1

NU: Aline Saarinen, "U.S. Lent Works On View in Paris; 100 Masterpieces of Gallic Art 'Go Home' in 'Salute to France' Exhibition," The New York Times, April 20, 1955, section: Food Fashions Family Furnishings, p. C37

OA: Philip S. Foner and Reinhard Schultz, The Other America: Art and the Labour Movement in the United States (London/NY:Journeyman Press Ltd., 1985)

OE: Paul J. Karlstrom (ed.), On the Edge of America: California Modernist Art, 1900-1950 (University of California Press, 1996)

OS: Interview with Alfonso Ossorio Conducted by Forrest Selvig In New York November 19, 1968, Smithsonian Archives of American Art
http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/ossori68.htm

PA: Emile de Antonio and Mitch Tuchman, Painters Painting (NY: Abbeville Press, 1984)

PB: Daniel Belasco, "The Passion of Ben Shahn," United Jewish Communities
http://www.ujc.org/page.html?ArticleID=18424

PC: Fairfield Porter interview by Paul Cummings, AAA, June 6, 1968, reel 4211 cited in Stevens and Swan, p. 78)

PF: Peter de Francia, "Coïgitum" [interview with Roberto Sebastian Antonio Matta Echaurren], Matta Coïgitum exh. cat. (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1977), pp. 3 - 12.

PH: William Hall Brock, "Phalanx on a Hill: Responses to Fourierism in the Transcendentalist Circle," Loyola University Chicago dissertation (1996) (http://www.billbrock.net/fch01.htm)

PI: "Philip Pavia" (obituary), The Times (May 23, 2005)

PJ: Janine Mileaf and Matthew S. Witkovsky, "Paris," in Leah Dickerman, Dada: Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, New York, Paris exh. cat. (Washington: National Gallery of Art, 2005)

PK: Pepe Karmel (ed.), Jackson Pollock: Interviews, Articles and Reviews (NY: The Museum of Modern Art, 1999)

PL: Antony Beevor and Artemis Cooper, Paris after the Liberation 1944 - 1949 (London: Penguin Books, 1993)

PM: John Russell, "Pierre Matisse, 89, Art Dealer and Promoter, Dies," The New York Times (August 11, 1989)

PN: Ben Sisario, "Philip Pavia 94, an Avant-Garde Sculptor, is Dead, The New York Times (April 15, 2005)

PO: Pat Hacket and Andy Warhol, Popism: The Warhol Sixties (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1980)

PP: Kirk Varnedoe with Pepe Karmel, Jackson Pollock exh. cat. (NY: The Museum of Modern Art, 1998)

PQ: Ben Sisario, "Who Pocketed 3 Hunks of Bronze," The New York Times (March 26, 2005)

PR: David Blakeskley, "Project Burke: The FBI Files," Taking Burke On(line): The Kenneth Burke Bibliography and Archival Project, Site sponsored by the School of Liberal Arts and Department of English at Purdue University
http://www.cla.purdue.edu/people/engl/dblakesley/burke/projects/fbi/fbifiles3.html

PS: Ben Sisario, "Salvaged From the Scrap Heap, a Sculptor's Weighty Work is Whole Again," The New York Times (April 1, 2005)

PSM: Patrick S. Smith, Andy Warhol's Art and Films (Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1986)

PV: John Richardson, A Life of Picasso, Volume II: 1907-1917 (London: Jonathan Cape, 1996)

RA: "Ryan Gallery is Lent to the City; Trustees of Estate Turn Over Building at 3 East 67th St. to Municipal Art Group," The New York Times, December 6, 1937, p. 25.

RB: Jared Jenkins, "Remo Bufano: Our Forgotten Ancestor," student paper for Trends in Contemporary American Puppet Theater (University of Connecticut, 1997) http://www.bimp.uconn.edu/library_publications_student_remobufano.htm

RC: "Robert Rauschenberg Chronologie," "Robert Rauschenberg, on and off the wall" exhibition (24 juin 2005 - 08 janvier 2006), Musee d'Art Moderne et d'Art Contemporain, Nice
(http://www.mamac-nice.org/francais/exposition_tempo/musee/raushenberg-2005/d_presse/chrono.html)

RD: Robert Motherwell (ed.) and Jack Flam (intro.), The Dada Painters and Poets: An Anthology (2nd ed.) (Cambridge/London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1982)

RE: "Roberto Matta," The Times (November 25, 2002)

RF: Academy Stars: Robert Henri (1865 - 1929), Pensylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (The Collection: Academy Archives)
(http://www.pafa.org/academyStars_p11.jsp)

RG: Glenn Phillips and Thomas Crow (eds.), Seeing Rothko (London: Tate Publishing, 2006)

RH: Danielle Peltakian, Robert Henri Chronology, Sullivan Goss Gallery (Santa Barbara, California)
(http://www.sullivangoss.com/robert_Henri/#Exhibitions)

RI: "Robert Henri and his Influence," Minnesota Museum of Art, http://tfaoi.com/aa/3aa/3aa432.htm

RK: Ruth Kligman, Love Affair: A Memoir of Jackson Pollock (NY: Cooper Square Press, 1999 ed., orig. publ. William Morrow & Co., 1974)

RL: By Robert L. Pincus, "Allan Kaprow; visionary helped shape 'happening,'" San Diego Union-Tribune (April 23, 2006)
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/obituaries/20060423-9999-lz1j23kaprow.html.

RM: Robert T. Buck (intro.), Essays by Dore Ashton and Jack Flam, Robert Motherwell exh. cat. (NY: Abbeville Press, Inc., 1983) (Albright-Knox Art Gallery:Oct. 1 - Nov. 27, 1983; Los Angeles County Museum of Art: January 5 - March 4, 1984; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art:http://www.freynorris.com/docs/Wolfgang_Paalen_cv.htm April 12 - June 3, 1984; Seattle Art Museum: June 21 - August 5, 1984; Corcoran Gallery of Art: September 14 - November 4, 1984; The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum: December 7, 1984 - February 3, 1985)

RO: James E.B. Breslin, Mark Rothko, A Biography (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993)

RP: Carolyn Kinder Carr, "Rebel Painters of the 1950s," essay written for the "Rebels: Painters and Poets of the 1950s" exhibition at the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery in 1996. (http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/rebels/painters.htm) (see also http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/rebels/)

RS: Robert L. Scott, "Diego Rivera at Rockefeller Center: Fresco Painting and Rhetoric," Western Journal of Speech Communication 41 (Spring 1977), p. 70-82

RT: Michael Corris, Ad Reinhardt (London: Reaktion Books, 2008

SA: Statement by Arshile Gorky given to the Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. in 1942 at the time they acquired Garden in Sochi, as quoted by Matossian in Black Angel (BA)

SB: Shulamith Behr, Expressionism (Movements in Modern Art Series) (London: Tate Gallery Publishing, Ltd., 1999)

SC: "Selective Auto-Elasto-Biographical Notes...," Matta Coïgitum exh. cat. (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1977), pp. 13 - 20

SD: Philip Rylands (ed.), Stuart Davis, exh. cat. (SIAE, The Trustees of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Electa, Milan, 1997)

SE: Interview with Elaine de Kooning Conducted by Phyllis Tuchman August 27, 1981 (Smithsonian Archives of American Art)

SG: Serge Guilbaut (transl. Arthur Goldhammer), How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom and the Cold War (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1983)

SH: Shelley Staples, Armory Show website, University of Virginia, May 2001, http://xroads.virginia.edu/~museum/armory/armoryshow.html

SI: Ben Sisario, "Who Pocketed 3 Hunks of Bronze?," The New York Times (March 26, 2005)

SJ: Edward Alden Jewell, "Season Just Closing Stressed War," The New York Times (June 7, 1942)

SK: Sanka Knox, "Sloan to Receive Paintings Award," The New York Times (March 15, 1950), p. 27

SM: 17 Members Bolt Artists' Congress; Charge Organization Backs Stalinist 'Line' and Can 'Only Damage' Free Art," The New York Times (April 17, 1940), p. 23

SR: Interview with Robert Motherwell Conducted by Paul Cummings At the Artist's home in Greenwich, Connecticut November 24, 1971, Smithsonian Archives of American Art, http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/mother71.htm

SS: Martica Sawin, Surrealism in Exile and the Beginning of the New York School (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1995)

ST: "Interview with Manuel Tolegian Conducted by Betty Hoag At the Artist's home in Sherman Oaks, California February 12, 1965," Smithsonian Archives of American Art,
http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/tranSCRIPTs/tolegi65.htm)

SV: Betty Lochrie Hoag "Oral History Interview with Frederick John de St. Vrain Schwankovsky, Laguna Beach, California, March 1, 1965, "Smithsonian Archives of American Art

SW: Tom Wolf, "Interview with Sally Avery Conducted by Tom Wolf At New York, New York 1982 February 19 & March 19," Smithsonian Archives of American Art, http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/avery82.htm

SY: David Sylvester, Interviews with American Artists (London: Chatto & Windus, 2001)

TA: "Americans in Paris," Time magazine, April 18, 1955

TD: Francis M. Naumann and Hector Obalk (eds.), Affectt Marcel, The Selected Correspondence of Marcel Duchamp (London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd: 2002)

TH: Thomas Hess, Barnett Newman exh. cat., The Tate Gallery June 28 -August 6, 1972 (London: Tate Gallery Publications Dept., 1972)

TJ: T.J. Demos, "Zurich Dada: The Aesthetics of Exile," in Leah Dickerman with Matthew S. Witkovsky (eds.), The Dada Seminars (Washington: National Gallery of Art in assn. with Distributed Art Publishers, Inc, 2005)

TM: "Beautiful Doings," Time, May 22, 1939
(www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,761401,00.html

TP: No author cited, "Artfinger: Turning Pictures into Gold," Time magazine (June 25, 1973)

TW: "On a Mexican Wall," Time, April 1, 1935
(http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,748696,00.html)

UA: Alexander Keneas, "Enigmatic Giant of Modern Art; The Grand Dada Marcel Duchamp, Art Giant, Dies," The New York Times, October 3, 1968, p. 1

UJ: Janis Mink, Marcel Duchamp 1887 - 1968: Art as Anti-Art (Köln: Taschen, 2004)

UL: Ursula Lehmann-Brockhaus (née Schmitt), "Selected Exhibitions," Matta Coïgitum exh. cat. (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1977), pp. 51 - 53

US: Berton Roueche, "Unframed Space," (Jackson Pollock interview in "Talk of the Town" section), The New Yorker (August 5, 1950), p. 16

VA: Valerie Ann Leeds, "The Independents: The Ashcan School & Their Circle from the Florida Collections," Traditional Fine Arts Organization (repr. in Resource Library, August 22, 2005)
(http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/6aa/6aa55.htm)

VH: Virginia Hagelstein Marquardt, "Art on the Political Front in America - From The Liberator to Art Front," Art Journal, Spring 1993
(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0425/is_n1_v52/ai_14331401/pg_1)

VP: Compiled by Catrina Neiman and Paul Nathan; Paul Bowles (foreword); Catrina Neiman (introduction); Charles Henri Ford (editor of View magazine), View, Parade of the Avant-Garde: An anthology of View magazine (1940 - 1947) (NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1991)

VR: Valerie Ann Leeds, "The Portraits of Robert Henri: Context and Influences," Traditional Fine Arts Organization repr. in Resource Library, August 2, 2005
(http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/6aa/6aa20.htm)

WA: Miguel López-Remiro (ed.), Writings on Art: Mark Rothko (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006)

WB: "Andre Breton," http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/André_Breton

WC: Brief Biographical Chronology of Wolfgang Paalen (http://www.paalen-archiv.com/literatur/Biographical-Chronology-WP.pdf)

WD: "William Baziotes, Painter, Dies; Leading Abstractionist Was 52," The New York Times (June 7, 1963)

WK: Wassily Kadinsky (transl. by Michael T.H. Sadler), Concerning the Spiritual in Art (London: Tate Publishing, 2006)

WP: Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London: Granta Books, 1999)

WR: William Rubin, "Matta," The Museum of Modern Art Bulletin, v. 25, no. 1 (1957)

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